Indonesia officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia comprises 17,508 islands and thirty three provinces. With over 238 million people, it is the world’s fourth most populous country, and has the world’s largest population of Muslims. Indonesia is a republic, with an elected legislature and president. The nation’s capital city is Jakarta. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and Malaysia. Other neighboring countries include Singapore, Philippines, Australia, and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Indonesia is a founding member of ASEAN and a member of the G-20 major economies. The Indonesian economy is the world’s eighteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and fifteenth largest by purchasing power parity.
The Top 6 Largest City of Indonesia
- Jakarta Jakarta is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Located on the northwest coast of Java, it has an area of 661 square kilometres (255 sq mi) and a 2010 census count population of 9,580,000. Jakarta is the country’s economic, cultural and political centre. It is the most populous city in Indonesia and in Southeast Asia, and is the tenth-largest city in the world. The urban area, Jabodetabek, is the second largest in the world. Jakarta is listed as a global city in the 2008 Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC) research. The city’s name is derived from the Old Javanese word “Jayakarta” which translates as “victorious deed”, “complete act”, or “complete victory”. Established in the fourth century, the city became an important trading port for the Kingdom of Sunda. It grew as the capital of the colonial Dutch East Indies. It was made capital of Indonesia when the country became independent after World War II. It was formerly known as Sunda Kelapa (397–1527), Jayakarta (1527–1619), Batavia (1619–1942), and Djakarta (1942–1972). Jakarta has also been known as the Big Durian by most Indonesians and some foreigners. Landmarks include the National Monument and Istiqlal Mosque. The city is the seat of the ASEAN Secretariat. Jakarta is served by the Soekarno-Hatta International Airport, Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport, and Tanjung Priok Harbour; it is connected by several intercity and commuter railways, and served by several bus lines running on reserved busways.
- Surabaya. Surabaya is Indonesia’s second-largest city with a population of over 2.7 million (5.6 million in the metropolitan area), and the capital of the province of East Java. It is located on the northern shore of eastern Java at the mouth of the Mas River and along the edge of the Madura Strait.
To Indonesians, it is known as “the city of heroes” due to the importance of the Battle of Surabaya in galvanizing Indonesian and international support for Indonesian independence during the Indonesian National Revolution.
As the main seaport and commercial center in the eastern region of Indonesia, Surabaya has become one of the largest cities in Southeast Asia. Today, Surabaya’s population is around three million, and the surrounding rural area houses at least 7 million. The areas surrounding Surabaya include Lamongan to the northwest, Gresik to the west, Bangkalan to the northeast, Sidoarjo to the south, and Mojokerto and Jombang to the southwest. Gresik, Bangkalan, Mojokerto, Surabaya, Sidoarjo and Lamongan as an area is called as Gerbang Kertosusila.
On Wednesday, 10 June 2009 the Suramadu Bridge between Surabaya and the island of Madura; was completed and it is currently the longest bridge in the country. Madura can also be accessed by a ferry service that operates regularly from Surabaya’s port, Tanjung Perak (which literally means: “Silver Cape” in Indonesian).
The Adhiwangsa, Taman Beverly, and Water Place Residences are three of the tallest skyscrapers in Surabaya. Plaza Tunjungan, Galaxy Mall, Surabaya Plaza, Supermal Pakuwon Indah, Surabaya Town Square, and Royal Plaza Surabaya are the famous shopping center while Hi-Tech Mall, WTC, and Plasa Marina are the computers and mobile-phones shops center in Surabaya. Surabaya is home to the Eastern Armada, one of two in the Indonesian Navy. Its strong maritime heritage is also reflected with the Submarine Monument, a real retired Russian submarine, called Pasopati, that was converted into a museum ship in the city center. Flooding is common in many areas of the city during the rainy season, mostly caused by clogged sewers and inept bureaucracy. The fact that Surabaya is located in a river delta and has a flat and relatively low elevation doesn’t help the matter either.
Surabaya is the location of the only synagogue in Indonesia, but it rarely obtains a minyan. There is also a Jewish cemetery in the city. Surabaya’s zoo, opened in 1916, was the first in the world to have successfully bred orangutans in captivity.
- Medan. Medan is the capital of the North Sumatra province in Indonesia. Located on the northern coast, Medan is the third largest city in Indonesia, and the largest Indonesian city outside Java. The city is bordered by the Deli Serdang Regency to the east, south and west, and the Strait of Malacca to the north. It is close to the volcano Sinabung, which erupted in August 2010 after a 400 year dormant state.
From 2005 Medan was governed by a mayor, Dr. H. Abdillah Ak, MBA (appointed for the period 2005-2010). However, Abdillah and his vice mayor were caught by Indonesian Corruption Eradication Commission in 2008. Syamsul Arifin, the Governor of North Sumatra Province, then appointed Affifudin Lubis to become the acting mayor. In 2009, Affifudin Lubis resigned as mayor, and the Governor then appointed Rahudman Harahap to become the mayor. Because Rahudman wanted to be a candidate in the 2010 mayor election, he resigned as mayor. Then Syamsul Arifin became the acting mayor. In the 2010 mayor election, Rahudman Harahap is elected mayor. Medan is divided into 21 districts (kecamatan) and 151 subdistricts (kelurahan).
- Bandung. Bandung is the capital of West Java province in Indonesia, and the country’s third largest city, and 2nd largest metropolitan area in Indonesia, with a population of 7.4 million in 2007. Located 768 m (2,520 ft) above sea level, approximately 140 km southeast of Jakarta. Bandung has cooler temperatures year-around than most other Indonesian cities. The city lies in a river basin surrounded by volcanic mountains. This topography provides a good natural defense system, which was the primary reason for the Dutch East Indies government’s plan to move the colony capital from Batavia to Bandung.
The Dutch colonials first opened tea plantations around the mountains in the eighteenth century, followed by a road construction connecting the plantation area to the capital (180 km or 112 miles to the northwest). The European inhabitants of the city demanded the establishment of a municipality (gemeente), which was granted in 1906 and Bandung gradually developed itself into a resort city for the plantation owners. Luxurious hotels, restaurants, cafes and European boutiques were opened of which the city was dubbed as Parijs van Java (Dutch: “The Paris of Java”).
After Indonesian independence on 1945 onwards, the city experienced a rapid development and urbanization that has transformed Bandung from idyllic town into a dense 16500 people/km² metropolitan area, a living space for over 2 million people. Natural resources have been exploited excessively, particularly in the conversions of protected upland area into highland villa and real estates. Although the city has encountered many problems (ranging from waste disposal, floods to chaotic traffic system, etc.), Bandung however still has its charm to attract people flocking into the city, either as weekend travellers or living in.
- Denpasar is the capital city of the province of Bali, Indonesia. It has a population of 491,500 (2002). It is located at 8°39′S 115°13′E / 8.65°S 115.217°E / -8.65; 115.217. Denpasar was the capital of the kingdom of Badung. It was conquered by the Dutch during the Dutch intervention in Bali (1906). The royal palace was looted and razed by the Dutch, leaving today’s central square “Taman Puputan” in which a statue to the 1906 Puputancan be seen.
Denpasar has various attractions. The white sandy beaches are well-known all over the island. Some of the surfing beaches are Kuta Beach, Legian Beach and Canggu Beach. Sanur beach has calmer waters and is excellent for sunbathing.
Ten minutes from the Ngurah Rai International Airport lies the town of Kuta. Kuta is where most of the hotels, restaurants, malls, cafes, marketplaces, and spas that cater to tourists are located. In the Denpasar area, all kinds of Balinese handicrafts are represented in local shops. These include artwork, pottery, textiles, and silver.
The traditional batik cloth is sold all over Denpasar. These bright sheets of cloth are as beautiful as they are cheap. Made of pure cotton with glorious patterns, Balinese batik is definitely a good buy. Sometimes batik cloth is made into wearable clothing such as a sarong or men’s shirts. The jewelry district is in a town called Celuk which is 30 minutes away from Kuta. Here there are silversmiths’ and goldsmiths’ shops selling jewellery cheaply. It’s population is over 495,000 people (Estimated 2010) and covers 47.9 sq miles. Its time zone is UTC+8.
- Semarang. Semarang is a city on the north coast of the island of Java, Indonesia. It is the capital of the province of Central Java. It has an area of 225.17 km² and a population of approximately 1.5 million people, making it Indonesia’s fifth largest city. Semarang is located at 6°58′S 110°25′E / 6.967°S 110.417°E / -6.967; 110.417. A major port during the Dutch colonial era, and still an important port today, the city has a dominant Javanese population. Semarang features a tropical wet and dry climate, with distinct wet and dry seasons. The city’s wet season runs from November through May, while the dry season covers the remaining five months. Unlike a number of cities and regions with a tropical wet and dry climate, average high and low temperatures are very consistent throughout the course of the year, with an average high temperature of around 31,1 degrees Celsius and average low temperatures of around 25 degrees Celsius. Semarang on average sees slightly approximately 1500 mm of precipitation annually.
source : wikipedia
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