List of former national capitals throughout the world


Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. This is a list of such cities, sorted by country and then by date.

A capital city  is the area of a country, province, region, or state regarded as enjoying primary status; although there are exceptions, a capital is almost always a city which physically encompasses the offices and meeting places of the seat of government and is usually fixed by law or by the constitution. An alternative term is political capital, but this phrase has a second meaning based on an alternate sense of the word capital. The capital is frequently, but not necessarily, the largest city of its constituent area and also often a specialized city.

The word capital is derived from the Latin caput meaning “head” and, in the United States, the related term capitol refers to the building where government business is chiefly conducted.

The seats of government in major sub-state jurisdictions are often called “capitals”, but this is typically the case only in countries with some degree of federalism, wherein major substate legal jurisdictions have elements of sovereignty. In unitary states, an “administrative centre” or other similar term is typically used for such locations besides the national capital city. For example, the seat of government in a state of the United States is usually called its “capital”, but the main city in a region of the United Kingdom is usually not called such, even though in Ireland, a county’s main town is usually called its “capital”. On the other hand, these four subdivisions of the United Kingdom do have capital cities: Scotland – Edinburgh, Wales – Cardiff, Northern Ireland – Belfast, and England – London. Counties in England, Wales and Scotland have historic county towns, which are often not the largest settlement within the county and invariably no longer exercise political power, as the county is often only ceremonial, and administrative boundaries differ.

In Canada, the ten provinces of Canada all have capital cities, including Quebec City, Toronto, Victoria, B.C., Winnipeg, etc. The states of such countries as Mexico, Brazil, and Australia all have capital cities. For example, the six state capitals of Australia are Adelaide, South Australia; Brisbane, Queensland; Hobart, Tasmania; Melbourne, Victoria; Perth, Western Australia; and Sydney, New South Wales. In Australia, the term “capital cities” is regularly referred to and includes the aforementioned state capitals plus the federal capital Canberra and Darwin, the capital of the Northern Territory.

In the Federal Republic of Germany, each of its constituent states (or “Lands”) has its own capital city, such as Wiesbaden, Mainz, Düsseldorf, Stuttgart, and Munich. Likewise, each of the republics of the Russian Federation has its own capital city.

At the lower administrative subdivisions in various English-speaking countries, terms such as county town, county seat, and borough seat are usually used.

Africa

Old capital city Country, empire From Until Change, reason
Ribeira Grande (now Cidade Velha) Cape Verde 1462? 1770 moved to Praia
Grand Bassam Côte d’Ivoire 1893 1900 moved to Bingerville
Bingerville Côte d’Ivoire 1900 1933 moved to Abidjan
Abidjan Côte d’Ivoire 1933 1983 moved to Yamoussoukro
Al-Fustat Egypt 641 750 Moved to Al-Askar
Al-Askar Egypt 905 969 Moved to Cairo
Otjimbingwe German South-West Africa 1886 1892 moved to Windhoek
Cape Coast Ghana (Gold Coast) 1664 1877 moved to Accra
Bolama Guinea-Bissau 1879 1941 moved to Bissau
Boe Guinea-Bissau 1973 1974 moved back to Bissau
Njimi Kanem fl. 11th Century c.1396 lost to Bulala invaders (eventually moved to Ngazargamu)
Ngazargamu Kanem-Bornu Empire c.1472 1808 lost to Fulani invaders (eventually moved to Kukawa)
Kukawa Kanem-Bornu Empire 1814 1893 Kingdom ceased to exist
Lagos Nigeria 1914 1976 moved to Abuja
Igbo Ukwu Kingdom of Nri 1043 1911 Nigeria
Aneho Togo 1880s 1897 moved to Lomé
Zomba Malawi 1880s 1975 moved to Lilongwe
Dar es Salaam Tanzania 1961 1996 moved to Dodoma
Axum Ethiopia 50 A.D. ? city abandoned
Debre Berhan Ethiopia 1456 mid-1470s Emperor returned to custom of a moving capital
Gondar Ethiopia 1635 late 19th century moved to Addis Ababa

See also List of Egyptian capitals.

[edit] Asia

[edit] Central and South-West Asia

Old capital city↓ Country, empire↓ From↓ Until↓ Change, reason↓
Kandahar Afghanistan 1748 1772 moved to Kabul
Ashur Assyria 3rd Millennium BC 800s BC moved to Calah
Calah Assyria 13th Century BC 710 BC Moved to Nineveh
Nineveh Assyria 1800 BC 600 BC Destroyed by Babylonians
Babylon Babylonia 24th Century BC 141 BC Conquered by Assyrians, Persians, Parthians, Alexander the Great, later abandoned completely
Susa, Anshan Iran (Proto-Elamite, Elam) 3200 BC 850 BC Conquered by Mannaeans
Zirta (Izirtu) Iran (Mannaeans) 850 BC 728 BC Conquered by Median Empire
Ecbatana Iran (Median Empire) 728 BC 550 BC captured by Cyrus the Great
Pasargadae Iran (Persian Empire) 559 BC 538 BC Capital moved to Susa by Cambyses II
Susa Iran (Persian Empire) 538 BC 515 BC Capital moved to Persepolis by Darius
Persepolis Iran (Persian Empire) 515 BC 331 BC captured by Alexander the Great and incorporated into Macedonian Empire
Seleucia Iran (Seleucid Empire) 305 BC 240 BC moved to Antioch
Antioch Iran (Seleucid Empire) 240 BC 64 BC conquered by Parthia
Ctesiphon, Hecatompylos, Mithridatkird-Nisa, Asaak Iran (Parthian Empire) 240 BC 224 conquered by Sassanid Empire
Firouzabad, Ctesiphon, Damghan Iran (Sassanid Empire) 224 637 fell in Islamic conquest of Persia
Nishapur Iran (Tahirid dynasty) 821 873 conquered by Saffarid dynasty
Zaranj, Amol Iran (Saffarid dynasty, Alavids) 861 900 conquered by Samanid
Bukhara, Balkh, Samarkand, Herat Iran (Samanid dynasty) 875 999 conquered by Ghaznavids
Ghazni Iran (Ghaznavids, Ghurids) 963 1212 conquered by Seljuq dynasty
Nishapur, Rey, Konye-Urgench Iran (Seljuq dynasty, Khwarezmid dynasty) 1037 1231 conquered by Ilkhanate
Maragheh, Soltaniyeh, Tabriz, Samarkand, Herat Iran (Ilkhanate, Timurid dynasty) 1231 1506 conquered by Safavid Dynasty
Tabriz Iran (Safavid Dynasty) 1501 1548 moved to Qazvin
Qazvin Iran (Safavid Dynasty) 1548 1598 moved to Isfahan
Isfahan Iran (Safavid Dynasty) 1598 1736 moved to Mashhad
Mashhad Iran (Afsharid dynasty) 1736 1750 moved to Shiraz
Shiraz Iran (Zand dynasty) 1750 1794 moved to Tehran in the Qajar dynasty
Hebron Israel, Kingdom of c.1007 BC c.1000 BC moved to Jerusalem when the kingdom was reunited under King David
Tel Aviv Israel, State of May 6, 1948 Dec 30 1948 interim de facto capital, moved to Jerusalem after captured from Jordanian forces in 1948 Arab-Israeli War
Jerusalem Jerusalem, Kingdom of 1099 1187 moved to Acre (Jerusalem captured by Saladin)
Acre Jerusalem, Kingdom of 1187 1291 Kingdom ceased to exist
Semey Kazakhstan (Alash Orda) 1917 1920 Entity named Kyrgyz ASSR established, capital moved to Orenburg
Orenburg Kazakhstan (Kyrgyz ASSR) 1920 1925 moved to Qyzylorda
Qyzylorda Kazakhstan (Kazakh ASSR) 1926 1929 moved to Alma-Ata
Alma-Ata Kazakhstan (Kazakh ASSR, Kazakh SSR, independent Kazakhstan) 1929 1993 renamed Almaty
Almaty Kazakhstan 1993 1998 moved to Astana
Salalah Oman 1932 1970 moved to Musqat
Diriyah Saudi Arabia 1744 1818 moved to Riyadh after the Turks destroyed the city.
Aden South Yemen 1967 1990 San’a, country ceased to exist after unification of Yemen
Samarkand Uzbekistan (SSR) 1925 1930 moved to Tashkent
Taiz Yemen 1948 1962 moved to San’a

[edit] South and South-East Asia

Old capital city↓ Country, empire↓ From↓ Until↓ Change, reason↓
Calcutta India (British) 1772 1912 moved to New Delhi
Simla India (British) fl. 1850 1947 Summer capital
Yogyakarta Indonesia 1946 1948 Allied invasion, moved to Bukittinggi
Bukittinggi Indonesia 1948 1949 moved to Jakarta
Marawi Maguindanao Sultanate ~1205 1800s (?) Annexed into the Spanish East Indies
Yangon Myanmar 1948 2005 moved to Naypyidaw
Bacolod Negros, Cantonal Republic of 1898 1899 absorbed by the Philippines.
Karachi Pakistan 1947 1959 moved to Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi Pakistan 1959 1967 moved to Islamabad
Malolos Philippine Republic (República Filipina) 1898 1899 Headquarters of the Revolutionary movement (Note: Several other towns became capitals at a succeeding rate, namely San Isidro, Cabanatuan, Bamban, Tarlac, Bayambang and Palanan, to avoid capture from the Americans). Moved back to Manila after capture of Aguinaldo on 1901.
Manila Philippine Republic, Japanese-sponsored 1943 1945 Liberation of the Philippines from the Japanese
Manila Philippines, Commonwealth of the 1934 1941 Japanese occupation. Moved back to Manila in 1945 after the liberation of the Philippines
Baguio Philippines 1946 1976 Summer Capital, moved back to Manila via Presidential Decree No. 940.
Quezon City Philippines 1948 1976 Moved back to Manila via Presidential Decree No. 940. Quezon City, with Manila, became parts of Metro Manila. Several government offices remained in Quezon City, including the Batasang Pambansa, and ultimately the House of Representatives. Manila is the current capital.
Cebu Spanish East Indies 1562 1578 (?) First Spanish settlement in the country. Moved to Manila (Formerly Maynilad) after capture.
Manila Spanish East Indies ~1578 1762 Captured by the British during the Seven Years’ War, returned to Spain after the Treaty of Paris.
Bacolor Spanish East Indies 1762 1764 Capital of the exiled government Governor-general Simon de Anda during the Seven Years’ War. Moved back to Manila
Manila Spanish East Indies 1764 1901 Ceded to the United States via Treaty of Paris
Anuradapura Lanka (Sri Lanka) ~382 BC 1018 Capital moved to possibly Polonnaruwa
Polonnaruwa Sri Lanka ~1055 1284 Capital moved to Dambadeniya
Kotte Sri Lanka ~1415 ~1565 Capital moved to Kandy
Kandy Sri Lanka 1592 1815 Capital moved to Colombo
Colombo Sri Lanka 1815 1982 Capital moved to Kotte
Jolo Sulu Sultanate 1450 (?) 1899 Annexed by the United States
Sukhothai Thailand (Kingdom of Siam) 1238 1438 moved to Ayutthaya after sacked by Ayutthaya
Chiang Mai (Lanna) Thailand (Kingdom of Siam) 1259 1939 Annexed by Siam
Ayutthaya Thailand (Kingdom of Siam) 1350 1767 moved to Thonburi after the Burmese destroyed the city
Thonburi Thailand (Kingdom of Siam) 1767 1782 moved to Bangkok after King Taksin was declared mad
Luang Prabang Lan Prabang 1707   Luang Prabang was one of three successors states to Lan Xang.
Luang Prabang Laos, Kingdom of 1949 1975 abdication of King Savang Vatthana; the second capital
Vientiane Lan Xang 1354 TBA moved to Luang Prabang
Vientiane Vientiane Lao 1707 (?) 1828 incorporated to Siam, then absorbed into French Indochina (in 1893)
Vientiane Kingdom of Laos 1949 1975 abdication of King Savang Vatthana
? Champasak Kingdom 1713 1946 Became part of Kingdom of Laos.
Angkor Khmer Empire 802 1431 Sacked by Ayutthaya
Lovek Lovek Kingdom 1525 1593 Move to Oudong (in 1618)
Phnom Penh Colonial Cambodia 1863 1887 annexed by France; moved to Saigon
Phong Châu Văn Lang (Hồng Bàng Dynasty) 2879 BC 258 BC annexed by Thục Dynasty
Phong Châu Vạn Xuân (Hậu Lý Nam Đế) 571 602 Third Chinese domination
Cổ Loa Âu Lạc (Thục Dynasty) 257 BC 207 BC First Chinese domination
Cổ Loa (Ngô Dynasty) 938 967 the upheavals of Twelve warlords
Mê Linh (Trưng Sisters) 40 43 Second Chinese domination
Long Biên Vạn Xuân (Anterior Lý dynasty and Triệu Việt Vương) 544 571 moved to Phong Châu
Hoa Lư Đại Cồ Việt (Đinh Dynasty) 968 980  
Hoa Lư Đại Cồ Việt (Early Lê Dynasty) 980 1009 moved to Đại La, then renamed into Thăng Long
Tây Đô Đại Ngu (Hồ Dynasty) 1400 1407 Fourth Chinese domination; it was the first capital of Hồ Dynasty
Tây Đô Đại Việt-Nam Triều (Restored Lê Dynasty) 1533 1592 moved to Thăng Long after defeating Mạc Dynasty
Phú Xuân (Huế) Đại Việt-Đàng Trong (Nguyễn Lords) 1558 1777 Tây Sơn Dynasty unified Đại Việt
Phú Xuân (Huế) Đại Việt (Tây Sơn Dynasty) 1788 1802  
Phú Xuân (Huế) Vietnam (Nguyễn Dynasty) 1802 1945 moved to Hanoi after the abdication of Emperor Bảo Đại
Phú Xuân (Huế) Empire of Vietnam 1945   August Revolution
Hue An Nam 1874 1955 annexed by France, Geneva Conference (1954) led to the Partition of Vietnam
Saigon (Ho Chi Minh City) French Indochina 1887 1901 moved to Hanoi
Saigon (Ho Chi Minh City) State of Vietnam 1949 1955 Geneva Conference (1954) led to the Partition of Vietnam; Saigon was renamed Ho Chi Minh City in 1976.
Saigon (Ho Chi Minh City) Vietnam, South 1954 1975 Hanoi, country ceased to exist after unification of Vietnam
Thăng Long (Hanoi) Đại Việt (Lý & Trần Dynasties) 1010 1400 Trần Dynasty renovated Thăng Long and renamed to Long Phượng
Thăng Long (Hanoi) Đại Ngu (Hồ Dynasty) 1400 1407 Fourth Chinese domination; renamed Thăng Long to Đông Đô, the second capital
Thăng Long (Hanoi) Đại Việt (Later Lê Dynasty) 1428 1527 Southern and Northern Dynasties of Vietnam
Thăng Long (Hanoi) Đại Việt-Bắc Triều (Mạc Dynasty) 1533 1592 defeated by Trịnh Lords; renamed again to Đông Đô
Thăng Long (Hanoi) Đại Việt-Đàng Ngoài (Later Lê Dynasty – Trịnh Lords) 1593 1788 Thăng Long was destroyed by Qing Dynasty and Tây Sơn Dynasty unified Đại Việt, then moved to Phú Xuân; renamed to Bắc Thành; renamed to Hanoi in 1831.
Hanoi French Indochina 1902 1953 Geneva Conference (1954) led to the Partition of Vietnam; in 1831, Emperor Minh Mạng renamed Thăng Long to Hanoi (Hà Nội)
Hanoi Vietnam, North 1954 1976 unification of Vietnam

[edit] East Asia

Old capital city↓ Country, empire↓ From↓ Until↓ Change, reason↓
Anyang China (Shang Dynasty) c. 1600 BC c. 1046 BC moved to Chang’an – end of Shang Dynasty
Chang’an China (Zhou Dynasty) c. 1046 BC 722 BC moved to Luoyang
Luoyang China (Zhou Dynasty) 772 BC 221 BC moved to Xianyang – fall of Zhou Dynasty
Xianyang China (Qin Dynasty) 221 BC 206 BC moved back to Chang’an – fall of Qin Dynasty
Chang’an China (Han Dynasty) 206 BC 25 moved back to Luoyang
Luoyang China (Han Dynasty) 25 220 fall of the Han Dynasty marking the beginning of the Six Dynasties period
Chang’an China (Sui Dynasty and Tang Dynasty) 581 907 fall of the Tang Dynasty marking the beginning of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period
Kaifeng China (Song Dynasty) 960 1127 moved to Hangzhou
Hangzhou China (Song Dynasty) 1127 1279 Kublai Khan integrated China into the Mongol Empire
Nanjing China (Ming Dynasty) 1368 1421 moved to Beijing
Nanjing China, Republic of 1928 1937 moved to Chongqing
Chongqing China, Republic of 1937 1945 moved back to Nanjing
Nanjing China, Republic of 1945 1949 moved to Beijing – After the proclamation of the People’s Republic of China, the Republic of China government fled to Taiwan and made Taipei the capital.
Hakodate Ezo, Republic of 1868 1869 Ezo annexed by Japan
Taipei Formosa, Republic of 1895 1895 moved to Tainan
Tainan Formosa, Republic of 1895 1895 Formosa annexed by Japan
Heijō-kyō (Nara) Japan (Nara Period) 710 784 moved to Nagaoka-kyō (Nagaoka)
Nagaoka-kyō (Nagaoka) Japan (Nara Period) 784 794 moved to Kyoto
Kyoto Japan 794 1868 moved to Tokyo (see also: Capital of Japan)
Wanggeom Korea (Gojoseon) Unknown 108 BC fall of Gojoseon
Jolbon Korea (Goguryeo) 37 BC 3 moved to Gungnae
Gungnae Korea (Goguryeo) 3 427 moved to Pyongyang
Pyongyang Korea (Goguryeo) 427 668 fall of Goguryeo
Gyeongju Korea (Silla) 57 BC 935 fall of Silla
Wirye Korea (Baekje) 18 BC 476 moved to Ungjin
Ungjin Korea (Baekje) 476 538 moved to Sabi
Sabi Korea (Baekje) 538 660 fall of Baekje
Gaegyeong Korea (Goryeo) 919 1392 moved to Hanyang (Seoul) – fall of Goryeo Dynasty
Shuri Ryūkyū 1429 1879 Annexed by Japan
Tainan Tungning, Kingdom of 1662 1683 Fall of the Kingdom of Tungning

[edit] Europe

[edit] Northern Europe

Old capital city↓ Country, empire↓ From↓ Until↓ Change, reason↓
Roskilde Denmark c.1020 1443 moved to Copenhagen
Winchester Kingdom of England 927 1066 moved to London (Kingdoms joined to become England)
Turku Finland, Grand Duchy of 1809 1812 moved to Helsinki
Hill of Tara Ireland (under the High Kings) 6th century 12th century Ireland invaded by Normans
Kilkenny Ireland, Confederate 1642 1651 Cromwellian conquest of Ireland
Castletown Man, Isle of 1090 1874 moved to Douglas
Nidaros (Trondheim) Norway 997 1070 moved to Bergen
Bjørgvin (Bergen) Norway 1070 1299 moved to Oslo
Christiania (Oslo) Norway 1624 1924 (also written Kristiania from ca. 1877), renamed Oslo
Scone, near Perth Scotland 846 1452 moved to Edinburgh
Machynlleth Wales 1404 1416 seat of Owain Glyndŵr’s self-proclaimed parliament. Capital declared to be Cardiff in 1955

[edit] Southern Europe

Old capital city↓ Country, empire↓ From↓ Until↓ Change, reason↓
Vlorë Albania 1912 1920 moved briefly to Durres and finally Tirana.
Pliska Bulgaria (First Bulgarian Empire) 681 893 moved to Preslav
Preslav Bulgaria (First Bulgarian Empire) 893 972 moved to Skopie
Skopie Bulgaria (First Bulgarian Empire) 972 992 moved to Ohrid
Ohrid Bulgaria (First Bulgarian Empire) 992 1018 Empire ceased to exist after Byzantine conquest
Veliko Tarnovo Bulgaria (Second Bulgarian Empire) 1185 1396 Empire ceased to exist after the Ottoman conquest
Plovdiv Eastern Rumelia 1878 1885 annexed as part of the Unification of Bulgaria
Constantinople Byzantine Empire 330 661 Emperor Constans II relocated his capital to Syracuse in Sicily.
Syracuse Byzantine Empire 661 668 Constans II was assassinated and the seat of Byzantine government was returned to Constantinople.
Constantinople Byzantine Empire 668 1204 The Fourth Crusade set out to replace the Greek Orthodox Byzantine Empire with a Latin version and there were several Byzantine successor states, the most memorable of which being the Empire of Nicaea.
Nicaea Byzantine Empire 1204 1261 When the Empire of Nicaea recaptured Constantinople, they relocated the capital there as well
Constantinople Byzantine Empire 1261 1453 Byzantine Empire conquered by the Ottoman Empire.
Burgos Castile 11th century 15th century moved to Valladolid
Corte Corsica 1755 1769 Corsican Republic annexed by France
Corte Anglo-Corsican Kingdom 1794 1795 moved to Bastia
Bastia Anglo-Corsican Kingdom 1795 1796 Corsican Kingdom annexed by France
Santiago Couto Mixto 12th century 1864 Couto Mixto annexed by Spain
Chania Crete 1898 1913 Cretan State united with Greece
Fiume/Rijeka Fiume, Free State of 1920 1924 annexed by Kingdom of Italy
Genoa Genoa, Republic of 11th century 1805 annexed by France
Granada Granada, Kingdom of 1250 1492 Kingdom ceased to exist after the Reconquista and incorporated into Castile
Nafplion Greece 1821 1836 moved to Athens
Aegina Greece 1827 1829 moved back to Nafplion
Turin Italy 1861 1865 moved to Florence
Florence Italy 1865 1871 moved to Rome
Salerno Italy 1944 1944 temporarily; moved to Rome after the latter’s liberation
Mdina Malta   1566 moved to Valletta
Modena Modena, Duchy of 1452 1860 became part of united Italy
Cetinje Montenegro 1482 1946 moved to Podgorica
Naples Naples, Kingdom of 1282 1816 Kingdom of Naples merged into the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Bursa Ottoman empire 1335 1365 moved to Edirne
Edirne Ottoman empire 1365 1453 moved to Istanbul (Constantinople)
Istanbul Ottoman empire 1453 1923 The Ottoman Empire became the Republic of Turkey. The capital moved to Ankara
Piacenza Piacenza and Parma, Duchy of 1545 1547 moved to Parma, following the assassination of the Duke Pierluigi Farnese
Parma Parma and Piacenza, Duchy of 1547 1860 Became part of united Italy.
Guimarães Portugal 1095 1131 moved to Coimbra
Coimbra Portugal 1131 1255 moved to Lisbon
Ragusa Ragusa, Republic of 7th century 1808 annexed by France
Turin Sardinia, Kingdom of 1720 1861 Became part of unified Italy
Turin Savoy, Duchy of 1563 1720 Became part of Kingdom of Sardinia.
Corfu Septinsular Republic 1800 1815 Succeeded by the United States of the Ionian Islands, an amical protectorate of the United Kingdom, which had Corfu as its capital, too, until 1864, when the Island country became part of the Kingdom of Greece.
Ras Serbia 950 1200 capital of Serbian midieval state Raska moved to Debrc
Debrc Serbia 1276 1289 moved to Belgrade
Prizren Serbia 1300 1345 moved to Skoplje
Skoplje Serbia 1345 1371 capital of Serbian Empire, now capital of Republic of Macedonia
Smederevo Serbia 1430 1453 capital of Serbian Despotate
Subotica Serbia 1526 1527 capital of Serbia, moved to Kragujevac
Kragujevac Serbia 1818 1841 moved to Belgrade
Palermo Sicily 1130 1816 Kingdom merged into the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Toledo Spain 15th Century 1561 moved to Madrid
Valladolid Spain 1600 1606 moved to Madrid
Valencia Spain 1936 1939 Government of the Second Spanish Republic in the Spanish Civil War
Trieste Trieste, Free Territory of 1947 1954 Territory dissolved, integrated into Italy and Yugoslavia
Florence Tuscany 1569 1860 became part of unified Italy
Naples Two Sicilies, Kingdom of the 1816 1861 became part of unified Italy
Belgrade Yugoslavia 1918 2003 State union dissolved, became capital of Serbia
Venice Venice, Republic of fl. 9th century 1797 annexed by Austria

[edit] Western Europe

Old capital city↓ Country, empire↓ From↓ Until↓ Change, reason↓
Aachen Holy Roman Empire Carolingian Empire 800 814 became capital of Charlemagne as Imperator Augustus of the Holy Roman Empire and the Emperior of the Carolingian Empire
Zürich Switzerland (Old Swiss Confederacy) 1415 1530 Vorort of the Swiss diet, after 1530 partially replaced by Lucerne.[1]
Vienna Holy Roman Empire 1558 1806 became capital in Austrian Empire
Vienna Austrian Empire 1806 1867 became capital in Austro-Hungarian Empire
Vienna Austro-Hungarian Empire 1867 1918 became capital in Republic of Austria
Karlsruhe Baden 1771 1918 Baden became part of the German Empire in 1871, and lost sovereignty fully in 1918. Karlsruhe remained the capital of the German state of Baden until 1945.
Munich Bavaria 14th century 1918 Bavaria became part of the German Empire in 1871, and lost sovereignty fully in 1918. Munich remains the capital of the German state of Bavaria.
Brunswick Brunswick 1815 1946 Brunswick merged into Niedersachsen
Frankfurt Confederation of the Rhine 1806 1815 dissolved in 1815
Vichy France 1940 1944 capital of Vichy France régime
Frankfurt German Confederation 1815 1866 German Confederation was dissolved in 1866
Berlin German Empire 1871 1945 Separation of Germany to occupation zones for the Allied powers
Bonn Germany, West 1949 1990 moved to Berlin after re-unification of Germany
East Berlin Germany, East 1949 1990 Berlin, country ceased to exist after re-unification of Germany
Hanover Hanover 1814 1866 Hanover annexed by Prussia
Wiesbaden Nassau 1816 1866 Nassau annexed by Prussia
Kelmis Neutral Moresnet 1816 1919 Moresnet annexed by Belgium
Oldenburg Oldenburg 1180 1946 Oldenburg merged into Niedersachsen
Heidelberg Palatinate 14th century 1720 moved to Mannheim
Mannheim Palatinate 1720 1777 Palatinate inherited by the Electors of Bavaria.
Dresden Saxony 1485 1952 Saxony became part of the German Empire in 1871, and Saxony lost its statehood in 1952. Dresden became again the capital of the German state of Saxony in 1990.
Bückeburg Schaumburg-Lippe 1643 1946 Schaumburg-Lippe merged into Niedersachsen
Aarau Switzerland (Helvetic Republic) 1798 1798 moved to Lucerne
Lucerne Switzerland (Helvetic Republic) 1798 1803 Helvetic Republic abolished
Kassel Westphalia 1807 1813 dissolved in 1813
Stuttgart Württemberg ca. 1300 1918 Württemberg became part of the German Empire in 1871, and lost sovereignty fully in 1918. Stuttgart remained the capital of the German state of Württemberg until 1947, and then became capital of the German state of Baden-Württemberg

[edit] Eastern Europe

Old capital city↓ Country, empire↓ From↓ Until↓ Change, reason↓
Ganja Azerbaijan 28 May, 1918 15 September, 1918 After the victory at the Battle of Baku, the government switched the capital to Baku
Mtskheta Georgia 3 century BC 5 century AD moved to Tbilisi
Kutaisi Georgia 978 1122 move back to Tbilisi
Kaunas Lithuania (details) 1922 1940 moved back to Vilnius
Suceava Moldavia c. 1380 1564 moved to Iaşi
Iaşi Moldavia 1565 1862 unified with Wallachia to form Romania
Vladimir Russia (Vladimir-Suzdal) 1169 1327 moved to Moscow
Bolgar Volga Bulgaria 8 century 1240s Volga Bulgaria lost sovereignty
Kazan Kazan Khanate 1438 1552 Kazan Khanate lost sovereignty
Moscow Grand Duchy of Moscow, Tsardom of Russia, Russian Empire 1327 1712 moved to Saint Petersburg
Yaroslavl Tsardom of Russia 1611 1612 de facto
Cherkassk Russia (Cossack Hetmanate) 1640 1805 moved to Novocherkassk
Novocherkassk Russia (Cossack Hetmanate) 1805 January 7, 1920 Don Cossacks lost sovereignty
Saint Petersburg (Petrograd) Russian Empire 1712 1918 moved to Moscow
Moscow Soviet Union 1922 1991 State union dissolved, Became capital of Russia
Kiev Kievan Rus 882 1169 state broke up, moved to Vladimir, Halych and Novgorod
Chyhyryn Ukraine (Cossack Hetmanate) 1648 1669 moved to Baturyn
Baturyn Ukraine (Cossack Hetmanate) 1669 1708 moved to Hlukhiv after demolition of the city by Russian forces
Hlukhiv Ukraine (Cossack Hetmanate) 1708 1722 Cossack Hetmanate lost its sovereignty
Hlukhiv Ukraine (Cossack Hetmanate) 1727 1734 Cossack Hetmanate lost its sovereignty
Baturyn Ukraine (Cossack Hetmanate) 1750 1764 Cossack Hetmanate lost its sovereignty
Kiev Ukraine (UNR) 1917 1920 Ukrainian People’s Republic lost its sovereignty
Kharkiv Ukraine (SSR) 1919 1934 moved to Kiev

[edit] Central Europe

Old capital city↓ Country, empire↓ From↓ Until↓ Change, reason↓
Pliska Bulgaria (First Bulgarian Empire) 681 893 moved to Preslav
Preslav Bulgaria (First Bulgarian Empire) 893 972 moved to Ohrid
Ohrid Bulgaria (First Bulgarian Empire) 990 1015 Empire ceased to exist after Byzantine conquest
Veliko Tarnovo Bulgaria (Second Bulgarian Empire) 1185 1396 Empire ceases to exist after the Ottoman conquest
Plovdiv Eastern Rumelia 1878 1885 annexed as part of the Unification of Bulgaria
Varaždin Croatia 1756 1776 Moved back to Zagreb,when a fire destroyed most of the city.
Prague Czechoslovakia 1918 1993 became capital in Czech Republic
Székesfehérvár and Esztergom Hungary 972 (or 973) 1256 The capital moved from Esztergom to Buda after most of the city was destroyed by the Mongols in 1242
Buda Hungary 1361 1536 moved to Pozsony after part of the nation captured by Ottoman Empire
Pressburg (Pozsony) Hungary, Royal 1536 1784 The Capital was here because Turks captured Buda, in 1784 it was moved back to Buda
Buda Hungary 1784 1849 becomes part of Austria, capital in Vienna
Buda Hungary (as part of Austro-Hungarian Empire) 1867 1873 united with Óbuda and Pest to become Budapest
Płock Masovia c.1038 1047 Masovia reincorporated into Poland
Płock Masovia 1138 1313 moved to Czersk
Czersk Masovia 1313 1413 moved to Warsaw
Warsaw Masovia 1413 1526 Masovia reincorporated into Poland
Cetinje Montenegro 1482 1946 moved to Podgorica
Gniezno Poland 10th century 1038 moved to Kraków
Poznań Poland 10th century 1038 moved to Kraków
Kraków Poland 1038 1079 moved to Płock
Płock Poland 1079 1138 moved to Kraków
Kraków Poland 1138 1290 moved to Poznań
Poznań Poland 1290 1296 moved to Kraków
Kraków Poland 1296 1596 moved to Warsaw
Lublin Poland 1944 1945 de facto capital
Łódź Poland 1945 1947 de facto capital
Ras Serbia 950 1200 capital of Serbian midieval state Raska moved to Debrc
Debrc Serbia 1276 1289 moved to Belgrade
Prizren Serbia 1300 1345 moved to Skoplje
Skoplje Serbia 1345 1371 capital of Serbian Empire, now capital of Macedonia
Smederevo Serbia 1430 1453 capital of Serbian Despotate
Subotica Serbia 1526 1527 capital of Serbia, moved to Kragujevac
Kragujevac Serbia 1818 1841 moved to Belgrade
Câmpulung Wallachia fl.13th Century fl.15th Century moved to Târgovişte
Târgovişte Wallachia 1396 1698 moved to Bucharest
Belgrade Yugoslavia 1918 2003 State union dissolved, became capital of Serbia

[edit] Oceania

Old capital city↓ Country, empire↓ From↓ Until↓ Change, reason↓
Levuka Fiji 1874 1877 moved to Suva
Jabor Marshall Islands 1885 1944 moved to Majuro
Kolonia Micronesia, Federated States of 1914 1999 moved to Palikir
Russell New Zealand 1840 1841 moved to Auckland
Auckland New Zealand 1841 1865 moved to Wellington
Koror Palau 1994 2007 moved to Melekeok
Tulaghi Solomon Islands 1896 1942 moved to Honiara

Note: Melbourne is sometimes said to have been the inaugural capital of Australia, from 1901 until 1927, when Parliament House, Canberra was opened. This is not so. Section 125 of the Constitution of Australia states that the seat of government is to be within the state of New South Wales but not less than 100 miles from Sydney, and that until that place (Canberra) was built, the Parliament of Australia would meet at Melbourne. That made Melbourne the de facto (but not de jure) seat of government 1901-1927, but it did not amount to Melbourne being declared the capital, and it was never so described in contemporary documents.

North America

For the historical capitals of the United States, the Confederate States of America, the Republic of Texas, the Vermont Republic, the Kingdom and Republic of Hawaii, as well as various unrecognized nations within the present United States, see Former national capitals in the United States.

For the many capitals of the former Province of Canada, see that article

Old capital city Country, empire From Until Change, reason
James Town Barbados 1625 1628 moved to Bridgetown, purpose built
St. George Bermuda 1612 1815 moved to Hamilton
Belize City British Honduras 1638 1970 moved to Belmopan
Chan Santa Cruz Chan Santa Cruz c.1852 1901 became part of Mexico
Cartago Costa Rica 1562 1823 moved to San José
Santiago de Cuba Cuba 1522 1589 moved (after 1607 in Havana)
Santiago de los Caballeros Dominican Republic 1863 1865 Dominican Restoration War
Spanish Town Jamaica 1534 1872 moved to Kingston
Quetzaltenango Los Altos 1838 1840 country ceased to exist
St. John’s Newfoundland 1855 1949 entered confederation with Canada
Washington, D.C. Philippine Commonwealth May 1942 October 1944 returned to the Philippines subsequent to the end of the Japanese occupation of the Philippines in World War II
Washington-on-the-Brazos Texas, Republic of 1836 1836 moved to Harrisburg
Harrisburg Texas, Republic of 1836 1836 moved to Galveston
Galveston Texas, Republic of 1836 1836 moved to Velasco
Velasco Texas, Republic of 1836 1836 moved to West Columbia
West Columbia Texas, Republic of 1836 1836 moved to Houston
Houston Texas, Republic of 1836 1839 moved to Austin
Austin Texas, Republic of 1839 1845 Texas annexed by USA
San Jose de Oruña Trinidad 1592 1783 moved to Port of Spain
New York City United States 1785 1790 moved to Philadelphia
Philadelphia United States 1790 1800 moved to Washington D. C.
Port of Spain West Indies Federation 1958 1962 country ceased to exist
Mérida Yucatán 1840 1847 Yucatán annexed by Mexico

[edit] South America

Old capital city Country, empire From Until Change, reason
Cuzco Inca Empire fl.13th Century c.1533 moved to Lima after the Spanish conquest
Coro Venezuela, Captaincy General of 1527 1578 moved to Caracas to prevent an invasion due to its large coastline.
Antimary Acre, Republic of 1899 1900 returned to Bolivia, then incorporated into Brazil
Perquenco Araucanía and Patagonia, Kingdom of 1860 ? incorporated to Chile and Argentina
Paraná Argentine Confederation 1853 1861 moved to Buenos Aires, after the secessionist State of Buenos Ayres rejoined Argentina
Salvador da Bahia Brazil 1549 1763 moved to Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro Portugal 1808 1815 became capital of Portugal when the Portuguese king John VI moved to the colony of Brazil during the war with Napoleonic France in 1808.
Rio de Janeiro Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarve; Kingdom of 1815 1825 It came into being when the colony of Brazil was elevated to the rank of a Kingdom, and the Kingdoms of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarve were united as a single State by the title of The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarve by a Law issued on December 16, 1815.
Rio de Janeiro Brazil 1763 1960 moved to Brasília
Concepción Chile, Kingdom of 1565 1575 moved to Santiago
Concepción
del Uruguay
Entre Rios,
Republic of
1820 1821 country dissolved (and incorporated to Argentina) after the death of Francisco Ramírez
Laguna Juliana Republic 1836 1836 reincorpored to the Brazilian Empire after the War of the Farrapos
Purificación Liga Federal 1815 1820 country dissolved
Tacna Peru-Bolivian Confederation 1837 1839 country ceased to exist
Piratini Riograndense Republic 1836 1845 reincorpored to the Brazilian Empire after the War of the Farrapos

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